Dedicated to the Preservation of Natural Areas, Wildlife & Wildlife Habitat
Moths of Troy Meadows
The Silent Majority


Commissioned & Authorized by Robert Perkins, Jr., President, Wildlife Preserves, Inc., Tenafly, NJ
Author, Research & Photography by Blaine Rothauser, BR Environmental Services, Florham Park, NJ
Power Point Design by Roy Levine, Valdosta, GA
Design & Editing by Leonardo Fariello, Whippany, NJ
Website by Phil Reynolds, BygByte, Rockaway Twp, NJ
All Images Copyright © 2014 Blaine Rothauser ~ Click to Enlarge
Troy Meadows
Central Passaic Basin
Parsippany-Troy Hills &
East Hanover Townships
Troy Meadows is a special place ... Located and centered in the northeastern quadrant of Morris County, Troy Meadows is a remnant of Glacier Lake Passaic. Ancient Lake Passaic was formed by waters released from a retreating Wisconsin Glacier, 12-14,000 years ago. So when you take a stroll through the Meadows today what you're really doing is walking on the bottom of a draining lake bed, ancient and enduring! The waterways that run through the Meadows include the tranquil Troy Brook and Whippany River. All tributaries to the Passaic River - Troy Brook empties into the Whippany River, the Whippany empties into the Rockaway River, and the Rockaway eventually empties into the Passaic River. During the past 12,000 years this ancient glacier lake has been dewatering through an arterial network of rivulets, tributaries, streams, and rivers; the Passaic River being the last in the series. Eventually this river drains all watersheds associated with it (the Meadows being part of both the Passaic and Whippany River Watersheds) through a gorge at Paterson Falls and into the Newark Bay and where inevitably the water is destined for the Atlantic Ocean. In response to all this draining a series of dominantly-based bottomland habitats have emerged. The Meadows is just one of series of ecologically complex mosaics that transect three counties and thirty miles. Most people in the region recognize the others before giving our beloved Meadows a second thought. The Great Swamp, the largest, and what was the deepest part of the glacial lake is probably the best known and most cared for. Black Meadows, Hatfield Swamp, and Great Piece Meadows are ecologic homologues with Great Swamp and Troy Meadows, but of varying size and scope. Today as this ancient lake continues to dry-up it has become a panoply of wetlands - marsh, bottomland forest, wet meadows, floodplain, and swamp - interspersed here and there with upland deciduous forest. All these sub-habitat types are the playgrounds for plants, animals and our treasured moths!
What Are Moths

Moths are in the class of "Insecta" - Insects are invertebrates with three parts to its body and six legs.

Moths and butterflies are in the order Lepidoptera, translated to mean "scaly wings" - fitting as their wings are made of microscopic scales.

The suborder Heterocera include moths while the suborder Rhopalocera include all butterflies.

Moths evolved long before butterflies; fossils containing impressions of their former selves have been dated to be 190 million years old. Both types of Lepidoptera are thought to have evolved with flowering plants, mainly because most modern species feed on flowering plants, as adults and larvae. One of the earliest species thought to be a moth-ancestor is archaeolepis mane, whose fossil fragments show scaled wings similar to caddisflies.

There are several difference between moths and butterflies. Generally butterflies fly during the day and moths fly after dusk. They are most active when the temperature is 80°F, but some species can emerge in winter when temperatures reach the 40's. Moths are generally thick and furry (raised scales) while butterflies are more slender and smooth. Butterfly antennas are slender and thread-like with swollen or club ends, moth antennas are usually feathery. Butterflies rest with their wings folded, moths rest with their wings out and open. These descriptions sometimes overlap, as some species of moths and butterflies can have one or more characteristics specific with what is thought of as common traits for each group.

There are four stages to the life of a moth - first there is the "egg." It hatches into a "larvae" - called a caterpillar. The caterpillar is an "eating machine," it molts out of its skin many times as it grows. Each growth stage is called an instar. Most eventually build "cocoons" where they go through metamorphism. The final stage is called the adult when emergence from the cocoon is complete – the majority of images included in this online guide represent the species in its final form before the life history process begins anew.

Why Moths
Why moths? Why not moths. This online guide is based upon a biologic survey performed by BR Environmental in 2012 and 2013. The moth group was chosen because the taxa that they belong to, Lepidoptera, provides a relatively accurate snapshot of the ecological health of Troy Meadows. Very few taxa can function so efficiently at gauging the environmental quality of the landscape like nocturnal Lepitoptera. In order to emphasize this crucial point we offer the following explanations as to why analyzing moth diversity can provide a barometer reading of current fitness inherent with the resource:
  1. Adult moths and their caterpillars are food for a wide variety of wildlife, including other insects, spiders, frogs, toads, lizards, shrews, skunks, bats and birds, therefore they are of high value in food webs.
  2. Moth species have an incredible diversity of life history requirements. It's not a case of one size fits all. Having a complete insect life-cycle is about the only common theme one can derive from the group. With 160,000 species world-wide, 2,200 +/- found in New Jersey, the life style and phenology (timing of life history events) of each species vary like the geometry of snowflakes.
  3. From the latter it should be obvious that if an area supports a large number of different species representing a good cross section of Lepidopteron families than chances are many interspecific biological associations have formed. In other words food webs, nutrient cycling, and other ecological services are solidified.
  4. Moth caterpillars have a great impact on plants by eating their leaves. This had led to many types of plants evolving special chemicals to make them less appealing to caterpillars to limit their damage. Moths in the adult stage also benefit plants by pollinating flowers while seeking out nectar, and so help in seed production. This not only benefits wild plants but also many of our food crops that depend on moths as well as other insects to ensure a good harvest.
  5. Moths play a vigorous and dynamic role in ecosystems as nutrient recyclers. Moths can easily be used to illustrate the flow of energy released by their relentless consumption of living, senescent, and dead coarse organic material in a natural system. Moth larvae, commonly known as caterpillars, are especially good examples of primary consumers, specifically herbivores, as many species feed directly on the leaves, stems, flower heads, seeds, and roots of plants (primary producers). Caterpillars are "shredders" – they break apart coarse organic matter, releasing carbon into atmosphere (carbon cycle), and enriching soil as they reduce plant parts into humus where smaller "detritavores" can do their part.
  6. Not unlike a canary in a coalmine, moths in many ways are the meteorologists of the environment. Monitoring the ecological status of this guild can give us vital clues to changes in our own environment, such as the effects of new farming practices, pesticides, air pollution and climate change.
Red-eyed Vireo with Elm Spanworm Moth
To emphasize the importance of moths in the environment one only has to look at their relationship with songbirds. Most warbler species consume a diet that is 30% or more caterpillars (moth larvae). Even birds that are mainly eating seeds, berries, and fruit mast will take caterpillars during the nesting phase of their life history in order to provide a protein boost to their young - natures "hotdogs" if you will. Songbirds time their migration schedules around the emergence of leaf-out and the caterpillars that follow become their prize. Some birds migrate early to feed on the first caterpillars to appear, others later, dining on those that wait for warmer weather to emerge. To emphasize the point, the red-eyed vireo, a neotropical songbird that visits
northeastern forests to breed and rear its next generation, consume on average a couple of caterpillars, adult moths, or combination thereof, every hour. Based on the population dynamics of the species and a little quick math, each day in our forests four-billion caterpillars are consumed! And this is only one species of bird. Considering all the different songbirds with hungry mouths to feed will help your mind put an exclamation point at the end of that last sentence. Jim McCormac of the Ohio Division of Fish and Wildlife makes a final ecological point, "It's a good thing we have all of these caterpillar-consuming birds; if they suddenly vanished, caterpillars would overwhelm or native plants".
Become Involved With This Project

BR Environmental Services has cataloged 300 species of moths in Troy Meadows - 125 species are illustrated in this online field guide.

If you want to become involved with this project, please contact Len@WildlifePreserves.org to coordinate your study locations and provide any species sighting not included in the index. Send your image to Blaine@brenvironmentalservices.com for review and possible inclusion in the guide.

It would not be unheard of to create a list over time that represnets 800 species specific to the ecology of our cherished Meadows providing development and mismanagement of the resource be kept in check.

If you would like to participate in this study, pay strict attention to your location and the habitat surrounding the species. Providing us with detailed and accurate information will help Wildlife Preserves become better stewards of the Meadows.

Blaine Rothauser - Moth Master, Troy Meadows

frog
Wildlife Preserves, Inc. - Info@WildlifePreserves.org
One Gateway Center, Suite 2500, Newark NJ 07102 - 973-539-5355
Copyright © 2014-2015 Wildlife Preserves, Inc. - All Rights Reserved ~ Site by BygByte

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